Equipment Pre-Specification Studies 


Insulation Coordination Studies

Swit​ching overvoltages, lightning overvoltages, ferroresonance, very fast transients
GIS/AIS substation equipment (such as circuit breakers, disconnect switches, buswork, bushings, and instrument transformers), power transformers, cables, transmission lines, surge arresters, other power system and monitoring equipment associated with GIS/AIS equipment
Surge arresters (i.e., proper ratings, location, and surge arrester grounding practices), switching restrictions, synchronous switching, pre-insertion resistors, surge capacitors, ferroresonance suppression devices, defined equipment Basic Switching Impulse Insulation Level (BSL) and Basic Lightning Impulse Insulation Level (BIL) ratings, grounding and bonding modifications
Grounding, Bonding, and Step-and-Touch Voltage Studies
Step voltages, touch voltages,
metal-to-metal touch voltages, grounding wire currents, bonding bar/wire currents
Substation bus, GIS enclosure,
ground grid, bonding bars/wires,
soil, surface material
Need for or verification of improved grounding and bonding